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番茄是水果or蔬菜?

時間:2018-05-29 15:55:55

了法庭。兩派各執一詞,煞是熱鬧。那么番茄究竟是水果,還是蔬菜呢?答案是“隨你高興”,因為這兩種說法都沒錯。

  The explanation lies in the two different ways that "fruit" is defined. First, it is true that scientifically speaking, tomatoes are fruits.

  對“fruit(水果,果實)”的定義有兩種不同說法。首先,從科學角度講,番茄的確屬于果實。

  According to Merriam-Webster, a fruit is "the usually edible reproductive body of a seed plant." In a blog post, the dictionary explained it in simpler terms: "Any thing that grows on a plant and is the means by which that plant gets its seeds out into the world is a fruit."

  根據《韋氏詞典》,果實通常指“種子植物的可食用繁殖體”?!段な洗實洹凡┛蛻系囊黃惱賂雋爍虻サ氖鴕澹骸骯凳淺ぴ謚參鍔?、能夠將植物種子帶到外面的部分?!?/p>

  That definition includes apples, tomatoes, and anything else that grows from a plant and contains seeds. (Cucumbers, peppers, pumpkins, and avocados are all fruits too, according to science.)

  這個定義包含了蘋果、番茄等任何有種子的植物部位。從科學意義上講,黃瓜、辣椒、南瓜、牛油果都屬于果實。


  Vegetables, on the other hand, have a slightly murkier definition. It's a word we use to group together a wide range of plants whose parts are edible and herbaceous, like roots, stems, and leaves. The critical distinction is that, according to the dictionary, a vegetable must be part of a plant or the whole plant itself, while fruits are just the means by which certain plants spread their seeds.

  另一方面,蔬菜的定義要更模糊一些。我們把一大批具有根莖葉等可食草本部分的植物歸類為蔬菜。根據《韋氏詞典》,二者的關鍵區別是:蔬菜必須是植物的一部分或整體本身,而果實只是特定植物傳播種子的方式。

  "The thing a tomato plant produces isn't a part of the plant itself, any more than the egg a chicken lays is part of the chicken, or the apple is part of the tree on which it grew," Merriam-Websterwrote.

  《韋氏詞典》稱:“番茄不是植物本身的一部分,最多就像蛋與雞、蘋果與蘋果樹的關系一樣?!?/p>

  But the confusion arises because "vegetable" isn't a botanical classification so much as it is a culinary one. And "fruit" can be a culinary term, too — described as "having a sweet pulp associated with the seed" and "used chiefly in a dessert or sweet course," according to Merriam-Webster. So scientifically, fruits don't have to be sweet, but in the kitchen, most people would classify the fruits that fall on the savory side, like tomatoes, as vegetables.

  但問題在于:“蔬菜”更多是一種烹飪分類,而不是一種植物學分類。與此同時,《韋氏詞典》稱,“fruit”也可以是一種烹飪食材,指“擁有帶種子的甜果肉”、“主要用于甜點或甜食”的東西。也就是說,從科學角度,果實不必是甜的;但從烹飪角度,大多數人會根據果實的味道將其歸類為蔬菜,比如番茄。

  Nutritionists recognize the terms as they are commonly used, and tomatoes are listed as a vegetable under USDA guidelines.

  營養學家根據番茄的主要用途將其列為蔬菜,而美國農業部的指導方針也將番茄列為蔬菜。

  Even the Supreme Court has weighed in on the issue.

  甚至連美國最高法院都曾介入過這個問題。

  1883年3月3日,美國頒布了新的關稅法,規定進口蔬菜需要繳納10%的關稅,而進口水果則不需要。當時紐約海關認為番茄是蔬菜,需交稅。然而,商人約翰尼克斯卻認為,根據植物學定義,番茄屬于水果,不應該被征稅。于是,尼克斯直接將海關稅收員告上法庭,要求退還被強制征收的稅。

  此案一路鬧到了美國最高法院,直到6年后,法庭才做出最終裁定。法官認為:

  "Botanically speaking, tomatoes are the fruit of a vine, just as are cucumbers, squashes, beans, and peas. But in the common language of the people … all these are vegetables which are grown in kitchen gardens, and which, whether eaten cooked or raw, are, like potatoes, carrots, parsnips, turnips, beets, cauliflower, cabbage, celery, and lettuce, usually served at dinner in, with, or after the soup, fish, or meats which constitute the principal part of the repast, and not, like fruits generally, as dessert."

  “從植物學上講,番茄是藤本植物的果實,就像黃瓜、南瓜、黃豆、豌豆一樣。但在人們的日常語言中,這些都是種在菜園里的蔬菜。它像土豆、胡蘿卜、歐洲蘿卜、蕪菁、甜菜、菜花、卷心菜、芹菜、生菜一樣,無論生吃還是熟吃,通常都是在晚餐里搭配著湯、魚、肉食用。它是正餐的一部分,而不像水果一樣,通常作為甜點?!?/p>

  其實,蔬菜和水果本來就不是一個科學的分類,更像是一種習慣,沒有確切的定論,所以,你開心就好。


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